Perception of Homosexuality

 

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(Castro, by Edward Rong, 2012)

      In this visual analysis, I attempt to compare the differences in perceptions and representations of homosexuality in two of the “symbolic gay neighborhoods”: Castro district of San Francisco and Greenwhich Village of lower Manhattan, New York City. The urban neighborhood of Greenwich Village and Castro represents “a vision and a directive to people in pursuit of the gay imaginary”1. These places are the most desirable destinations for gay and lesbians in the country, who are looking for “others who occupy the categories ‘lesbian’ and ‘gay’” and “the escape from surveillance into freedom” 2.

       The development of the Castro started in the 1940s. During World War II, thousands of gay soldiers were discharged by the military for homosexuality and released to San Francisco. Rather than going back to where they were originally from, a lot of them chose to stay. As gay culture became more accepted among people, tens of thousands of lesbians and gay men moved to major urban areas across the nation, among other metropolitan areas “San Francisco was the premier destination”3. Castro District, an old, quiet Irish working-class neighborhood, was transformed into not only the “unquestionable center of local gay politics”4 (Rubin, p. 107) but also an internationally famous gay enclave in the 1970s, by what Kath Weston called “the Great Gay Migration.”

       Castro presents its status in an explicit and visible way, giving people direct visual impressions of the culture in the district. The above image was a snapshot I took in March 2012. The highlighted areas of the image are the two posters of upcoming events. The image is laid out in a symmetrical way. In the back of the image, there is a restaurant. As we can see, rainbow banners are being hung on the lampposts along the street. The rainbow banners along the streets have become the symbolic characteristics of the district.

Imagine walking down 18th street from Castro, gay bars are to be seen along the way, the “Midnight Sun” with its post-modern metallic exterior; “Moby Dick” all kinds of different condoms are put in candy containers. Most of them are closed in the calm and quiet daytime, as if they were storing energy for the wild night. Encountering gay couples with punk or hipster outfits is not strange. Right across the street from Mission High School is the Mission-Dolores Park, where a vast outdoor space is offered to people. It is the most desirable place for gay couples to enjoy the sunshine half-naked.

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       (Fall at Washington Square Park, Yewen Jin, 2011)

Greenwich Village, referred as the Village by New Yorkers, is the iconic outsider neighborhood between midtown and the financial district. It has been New York’s home for counter-culture, gay liberation, and artistic inspiration. Greenwich Village is the center of gay and lesbian culture in the city. It inhabits famous gay bars such as the “Stonewall” and “Alex in Wonderland.” During the 1960s, the Stonewall riots and the following protests were seen as the “catalyst of the Gay Rights movement in the United States”5; the role of NYU’s Weinstein hall in response to the discriminatory polices the school held toward gay, attracted famous activists such as Sylvia Rivera to come and hold public teach-ins.6

The above image features fall at the heart of Greenwich Village, the Washington Square Park. The image portrays a sense of peacefulness, which signals the coming of winter. The image displays different levels of perspectives: in the front is a circle at the center of the park; further in the middle captures people walking on the path paved with yellow leaves under the tree shade; buildings in Beaux-Arts style are seen in the back of the image. The yellow and brown from the trees enhances the presence of fall. Compared to the explicit visual demonstrations of Castro, Greenwich Village does not exhibit any symbolic or indicative element of homosexuality, rather, it presents a scene of conservative, fast-pace metropolitan life.

Exploring Washington Square Park and its surrounding neighborhoods is a different experience. White and purple flags of NYU are hanging in the air. Cars are honking and cutting in order to get their ways around the concrete jungle. People in suits and ties walking in and out of Astor Palace Station on their phone holding a cup of Starbucks are the most common scene.

I conclude that the difference in the representation of homosexuality between the two neighborhoods is generated by the cultural differences between the locations. The leisure and more opened homosexual culture at Castro are related to its physical position, which Rubin describes as “far away from the centers of retail power, finance and redevelopment”7. With a relatively slow pace of life, gay and lesbian are able to develop and pursuit lifestyles that are more casual and self-oriented. It is rather hard for gay and lesbian to live in Manhattan. The fast and competitive rhythm of living is putting different kinds of pressures on them. The fear of being judged also plays a role in the environment where business-professional is the dominant culture.

 

 

 

 

 

       

                                                      Notes 

    1.     Kath Weston, Get Thee to a Big City: Sexual Imaginary and the Great Gay

Migration, (GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 1995), 262

    2.   Ibid., 265.

    3.    Ibid., 255.

    4.     Gayle S. Rubin, Elegy for the Valley of the Kings: AIDS and the Leather

 Community in San Francisco, 1981-1996, (The University of Chicago Press, 1997), 107.

    5.   The Legacy of Stonewall, WordPress.com, Oct 2nd, 2012,

https://greenwichvillagehistory.wordpress.com/2012/10/02/the-legacy-of-stonewall/

     6.   Maggie Schreiner, An Army of Lovers Cannot Lose: The Occupation of
 NYU’s Weinstein Hall, Dec, 14th, 2011,https://greenwichvillagehistory.wordpress.com/2011/12/14/an-army-of-lovers-cannot-lose-the-occupation-of-nyus-weinstein-hall/

       7.  Gayle S. Rubin, Elegy for the Valley of the Kings: AIDS and the Leather

 Community in San Francisco, 1981-1996, (The University of Chicago Press, 1997), 120.

  

 

 

        

 

 

      

 

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Women Submisivity

Dolce-Gabbana-Fashion-Wallpapers-3-Wallpaper

In our culture it is very popular to view women merely as being submissive. This is becoming the norm in our society and we can very well see our culture changing right beneath our feet. I had chosen a picture that was in an ad by Dolce & Gabbana where a woman is being submitted by a man. Many will view the picture as elegant or maybe even “sexy”, but others will see this picture as degrading, dehumanizing, and be disgusted by the image. Women should not be viewed as being submissive to a man, but be empowering to the community of all women. But this will not change unless we can change how television portrays women and finally have women take a stand and say no, they will not partake in these degrading acts that are asked of them by the film industry.

This picture in a Dolce & Gabbana commercial ad portrays a women being held down by a man without a shirt on while three other men with barely any clothing on as well watch the women being submitted. This ad is showing our male population that it is okay to submit women, but it is also showing the women population that it is okay to be submitted by a man. This is not okay considering this is immoral in our society to act out like this upon women. Television has a major influence on its viewers simply for the fact that people believe and mimic what they see. People will view these acts as okay because they saw a man on television acting out in this specific manner against women. The younger generations are going to interpret the wrong message from this ad if we don’t stop showing these demeaning ads against women in our culture. In Habits of the Heart, the author’s state, “While Television does not preach, it nevertheless presents a picture of reality that influences us more than an overt message could” (Bellah et al. 1985: p.279). This Dolce & Gabbana picture is shaping the wrong realities for millions of people all over the world, and is giving off the wrong messages. But this industry will do everything in its power to flourish and strive for more profits on the products they sell. The authors of Habits of the Heart also state that our society is constantly transforming and structures are often being altered by social movements. Dolce & Gabbana knows that sex sells, and because of this social movement in our society where everyone loves to view sexualized objects, this major company intended for their commercial ad to be very sexual and intriguing to the viewers’ eye. This is what our society wants to see in ads, and because of these degrading images upon women, many buy the Dolce & Gabanna products because they view the ads as “sexy”.  But in reality, the company is hurting both the man and the women’s image in our society.

This type of commercial ad is allowing the viewers all over the world to view women as sexualized objects that deserve no respect since she is being submitted in the commercial ad by a man. But she is also almost unclothed and very pretty due to all the makeup and lighting. Many girls will therefore see these women as the way one should look. Many will transform their bodies looking for the results this women in the commercial ad has, but sad to say, they will never find the look that they want. And for the man, he is somewhat viewed as being abusive by submitting this women with shirt off. And the other men standing in the back watching this man submit this women are immoral and wrong for letting this man commit such degrading acts upon a women. Here again we see that commercial ads as this one will lead some to transform their bodies because television and entertainment have many influences on our population.

Our society can do nothing about these commercial ads because the actors and models are quote on quote, “working to make a living.” It is there job to portray these sexualized submissive images in the Dolce & Gabbana commercial ads. People are going to make their own decisions whether others like it or not, ultimately because it is their life. The authors of Habits of the Heart stated that we make our own decisions, live our lives as we see fit, and anything that violates these rights are not only morally wrong, but sacrilegious as well (Bellah et al. 1985: p.142). Society does not have the right to say something and judge these individuals because it is their right to have a choice in what profession they will seek out. Instead, all we as a society can do is to not support and condone of the images and the ways this major corporation Dolce & Gabbana pose and dress their models on set for a new commercial ad.

-Christopher de Ronde

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130x visual

 

Paul G. Steffen

 

Civil disobedience, what a concept in America.   With the god given right of dissidents against an authorities figurehead is natural in America.  Protesting, demonstrations and radical movements have been a focal point in American history.  The key is enough people with the single cause to represent the voice of the people.  Political crap has to be addressed for the common good of the masses. 

In 1965, I was 12 years old and witnessed my first demonstration, a civil rights movement in L.A.  I saw peace, marching and talks from leaders of the march.  I also saw some atrocities; the police (to protect and serve) with their dogs attack African Americans and beat them.   I was a 12-year-old boy standing in the midst of this full-blown riot and a single cop came up to me and told me to go home.   I told him to fuck off and he slapped me, I ran a little distance and sat down on the curb and watched the rest of the afternoon.   This built up my foundation of civil disobedience for the rest of my life.   I’ve never conformed to the establishment I have always been against it. 

The right to dis-obey is so profound of a thought to change mankind, for better or even worse, that will be determined later in life.  This is a standard on which I live by, I will not compromise and will not alter my beliefs for the sake of the herd mentality, and I walk my walk for my dignity of myself.   Question everything.  

The sole purpose to civil disobedience is to change things that are immoral for the good of the many and in some cases the good of the few.    A theory of obligation or right of obligation is the question at this time,  whether the judgments of personal advantage is at stake or the will of the authority is the doctrine of the times, must be evaluated or dismissed by those souls willing to take the risk.   This will put oneself in great harm but will generate a great feeling within oneself that nothing else will obtain.  We as a people have the right to disobey and to always to do so in our lives.  

 

 

Guattari, Felix.  Chaosophy,  2009 Semiotext

Zwiebach, Burton, Civility and Disobedience. 1975, Cambridge University Press.

Walsh, Sharon. Civil Disobedience, 2005, A Wadsworth Casebook in Argument Thomson Press.

 

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by | March 17, 2013 · 6:42 PM

What it means to be an American

What it means to be an American

The photograph above is taken from Coco Fusco’s performance collection: The Postponed Event, Norte Sur. I chose this photograph to portray the theme of cultural citizenship. In this picture, Coco Fusco and Guillermo Gomez display extreme cultural identifications of what it means to be an immigrant in the Unites States and conforming to cultural ideologies as they interpret the role of two natives. On the left, Guillermo Gomes is displayed as an Aztec to represent the native inhabitants of central Mexico. On the right, Coco Fusco takes the role of an Afro Cuban priestess. Just as Horace Minor does with his article, Body Rituals among the Nacirema, this image as well portrays an interesting twist of the idea of being “Americanized” and encountering this culture.
Cultural citizenship is defined as “the right to be different with respect to the norms of the dominant national community, without compromising one’s right to belong, in the sense of participating in the nation-state’s democratic processes” (Rosaldo, 57). I believe this photograph does an excellent example of showing us what it means to keep one’s identity of self in a mobile society that asks for adaptation towards the American culture. We see Guillermo holding a burger on one hand representing the fast food nation of America while wearing sunglasses and an Americanized style moustache. Coco holds one of America’s icons of popular culture, Mickey Mouse, which is a symbol of the American dream. These two visuals in a sense are icons representing some value of the American culture whether it be an ideal or a value. This ideal vision is what people yearn for coming to the United States and gaining citizenship. America: we are going places. This is what attracts a majority of people moving into the U.S. hoping for a new start, hoping to make it big, or hoping to achieve the American dream. In order to achieve the American dream, most immigrants become “Americanized”, hiding their true culture and background from the rest afraid of being labeled, rejected, or simply, afraid of not belonging. One’s authenticity may even become questioned. Authenticity is the degree to which one is true to one’s own personality, spirit, or character, despite external pressures. Moving to the United States may put one’s authenticity into trial. How true can you be to yourself when having to conform to social pressures?
Rosaldo states that “cultural citizenship is a process that involves claiming membership in, and remaking, America” (p58). By claiming membership, and gaining citizenship, one feels closer to home and gains a sense of belonging in a country that was once foreign. However, some may argue that one is making the self a part of the United States in fear of cultural genocide and disenfranchisement (Ramirez, 15). Aihwa Ong believes cultural citizenship is achieved through a dual process; where “becoming a citizen depends on how one is constituted as a subject who exercises or submits to power relations” (p.542) with a modern attitude of self-making. It is a process of subject-fixation where the immigrant begins to take up the practices of surveillance, discipline, control, and administration. As Guillermo and Coco become objects of embodiment through their dress ware, both may participate in self-surveillance by accommodating to the ideologies of what it means to be “Americanized” and may even lose a part of their culture by conforming to citizenship, but yet, may gain status in the social ladder. When two strangers come from different backgrounds and different cultures, citizenship seems like the ideal as it will mean they would share “symbolic adaption into the same fraternal society” (Mead, p.36), and hence, feel they belong.
In this photograph though, both seem to have a smile on their face. They embrace the American culture while still maintaining their cultural identity. I believe that by incorporating the native head dress, it shows the ideal of fitting in but yet maintaining a sense of where you come from. In part, they are still holding on to their past while accommodating to the American culture. The ideal of every immigrant coming to the United States may be as Margaret Mead states: “a world in which we don’t fully belong, but which we feel, if we work at it, we some time may achieve” (p 53).
-Aurora Rodriguez

Aihwa Ong, “Cultural Citizenship as Subject-Making” (1996).
Margaret Mead, “And Keep your Powder Dry” (1943).
Ramirez, Reyna, “Native Hubs” (2007).
Renato Rosaldo, “Identity, Conflict, and Evolving Latino Communities: Cultural Citizenship in San Jose, California”

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by | March 17, 2013 · 5:04 PM

The Muwekma Ohlone


When I was searching the Internet for images to use for my visual analysis, I chose this image of people in traditional Native American garb parading. It was taken by a unknown photographer in 2010 when the Muwekma Ohlone tribe joined the Veteran non-profit group called Veterans for peace during the San Francisco Memorial Day Parade. The image visualizes the people that I have read about in Renya K. Ramirez’s Native American studies/Anthropology/American studies book Native Hubs.

Muwekma means the people in the Tamien and Chocenyo languages (Ramirez 2007). Ohlone It is the term used for indigenous people in the greater San Francisco Area. They have identified themselves as such since 1916. It wasn’t until 1927 that the superintendent decided to drop the federal status Ohlone people known as the Verona Band that their status as a federally recognized tribe was taken away. To add fire to the flame the Ohlone were declared extinct by anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber in 1925.

Kroeber is a student of Franz Boas who declared it was important for cultures to live in a consolidated area to be a culture. Kroeber’s legacy of confusion begins with how he defines Californian native societies as composed of “tribelets” (Kroeber 1955). He required that a tribe must exist in a political and geographical unit, which is comprised of n number of villages. This definition marginalized scattered native groups due to the mission system in San Jose.

During this time the Muwekma even had the support of other anthropologists John P Harrington and C. Hart Merriam who both provided ample documentation to the tribes legitimacy. This measure of authenticity has haunted the Muwekma for decades.

It wasn’t until the 1980’s when the descendants of the Chochenyo Ohlone speakers of the southern and eastern San Francisco Bay Area regrouped and constituted themselves as the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe, in a contemporary revitalization. This revitalization lead to the founding of hubs in the Bay area, thia process has been a slow one.

A tribe in name but not on legality, the Muwekma lobby and demonstrate for support so their tribe can be recognized in the federal governments eyes. The documents they have needed to produce have greatly slowed their progress towards sovereignty, so they have tried to show their progress towards solidarity through public displays. These displays commonly mimic other tribe’s cultural heritage displays.

The image depicts a few native Northern Californian Tribes People of the Muwekma Ohlone who organize with the San Francisco hub. In the image they are mimicking a popular Native American performance. The performance was organized through a San Francisco Muwekma Ohlone hub to spread awareness of the tribe legitimacy.

The Muwekma Tribe’s hubs “central features are claims to rootedness and aboriginality, and to storytelling, as well as performative use of mimicry” (Ramirez 2007). This hub making has been intertwined with the struggle for full access to the resources, particularly health care services, provided to federally recognized Native Americans. This struggle for access has challenged the Muwekma with federally acknowledged and unacknowledged qualifications of authenticity.

The struggles with authenticity are driving forces behind many mimetic demonstrations the Muwekma participate in. The Muwekma were not the originators of the gourd dance, which was performed as part of the day’s festivities, but perform it for what is called strategic essentialism. The Kiowa are the credited originators of the gourd dance. The Muwekma use the familiarity of the ritual to essentialize themselves as Native Americans. This strategic essentialism builds solidarity and helps with public outreach for their cause.

Giving the audience a view of tradition and showing solidarity the Muwekma can be publicly perceived as authentic. I believe that by having their picture taken during parade in full “tribal” gear, the audience perceives them as being an authentic tribe. This picture would benefit the tribe by spread of public awareness of their authenticity and existence. Their authenticity and existence are shown but what else is seen.

The image places the very colorful and visible male members in the forefront with the woman coming up from behind. This makes the males the most noticeable in the group which, marginalizing the female members. Despite this the current leader of the Muwekma is a woman named Rosemary Cambra.  Cambra has “reimagined the relationship between gender and citizenship, challenging the dominant societies attempt to minimize her power as an indian woman and as a tribal leader.(Ramirez 2007)” Rosemary has organized tribal efforts since the 1980’s, she began by demonstrating publicly how Indian women’s leadership is not recognized publicly and not supported politically and revealed how it is “oppressed.” She believes that she is apart of a legacy of old women who since her great aunt have led her people.

This image carries with it the weight and the struggle of a people who throughout history have been marginalized and oppressed. The image also depicts the beauty of struggle for justice that the Muwekma believe their cause carries. The echoes through history up to the present illustrate a desire for culture, community and belonging.

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Statue of Liberty

Image

The Statue of Liberty is one of America’s most revered and iconic historical landmarks. In the late nineteenth century to the early to mid-twentieth century, immigrants would arrive in America via a ship on the Atlantic Ocean, the first time they would see before disembarking onto Ellis Island is the Statue of Liberty. It is the all American symbol. At night the statue of liberty is illuminated, even at night the first thing travelers’ see is the illuminated Statue of Liberty. When weary travelers first caught a glimpse of this statue standing tall and proud, they knew they had made it. They were in America. America is imagined as the land of success and happiness. Immigrants settle into America, only to have their ideals and fantasies of America completely changed and disproved. The American culture is based off imagined notions of what America should be.

America is a democratic society with a capitalist economy, which allows for free markets. Every American is in search for success and happiness. Most Americans live their life searching and pursuing success, but the question is do most Americans know what they want in life? Is success the road to happiness? In Habits of the Heart, Bellah notes, “for most of us, it is easier to think about how to get what we want than to know what exactly we want” (Bellah 1985, 21). The idea of success is permanently engrained into our hearts and minds. Most of the time, Americans do not know what they want. People are hypnotized by the idea of happiness. They pursue an imagined goal. Even if they never obtain their “success”, people will continue to seek their happiness until the day they die. From the beginning of one’s life, one is taught they have the potential do anything and be anyone.

American culture is engulfed into the belief in individualism. Many are influenced in the idea that they are special and one-of-a-kind. The notion of individualism deludes and influences many Americans. Kathleen Stewart recounts on one of her experiences, “she says she’s talked to other people who have experiences like his [a man, named Bob from Henderson, Nevada] and think the way he does… this makes him mad (much to her surprise)… He’s an individual… There is no one in the world like him… He isn’t like anything” (Stewart 2007, 34). America encourages the idea of individualism and success to help fuel the drive for capitalism. Is America the land of success and individualism or is America the land of blissful ignorance? The ideals of happiness and success are obtained only a few Americans. Most people do not obtain happiness and success, and they realize it, but they pursue success if there is a slight chance of finding happiness.

The ideas of American success and happiness are not domestic. Ideas about American culture are found abroad. Many immigrants from all over the world, from Mexico, China, India, the Philippines etc., migrate to America with these ideals. America’s influence abroad came from American imperialism and America’s insistence on their exceptionalism. Genova states “the disparity between the exceptional status of the United States as the beacon of republican virtue in the world and its exceptionalism – “purely a question of might” – as the only remaining superpower, to signal a direct and absolute contradiction” (Genova 2007, 242). America strives to be exceptional, or at least that is what they think. The Statue of Liberty is a symbol. Both immigrants and American citizens look at it for inspiration and reassurance in their life pursuits.

            The Statue of Liberty is not at all a negative feature in American culture and history. It can, also, symbolize hope, enlightenment, freedom, and democracy in America. Immigrants will look upon the statue, as they arrive into America, and a sense of hope and opportunity wash over. They left their home country for a reason, whether it was to start a new life, escape political persecution, or to be with family in America. They have hope and determination for their new life in America. There are many different paths and obstacles, they will encounter. That beginning hope and determination can either make or break someone in his or her pursuit for happiness and success in America. America can provide its citizens with great potential to succeed and find happiness. I believe that success and happiness do not have preconditions. Success and happiness can have completely different meanings for everyone. For one person, success can be having a six-figure salary, while for another person, success can mean having a quaint home and loving family. We all make different choices and take different paths, but we all have a common goal in mind: happiness.

Photo by Andreas Feininger

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gucci_gulity_for_men_perfume            In the Gucci advertisement displayed, shows both male and female models embracing each other for a Gucci cologne advertisement. In today’s American society, looks are becoming the normal aspect of everyday American life. The contemporary media targets their advertisements to American youths and because of this, the American youth has been influenced by this. As the beauty advertisement grows, so does the ideal beauty of how a man and a woman should appear to each other. As shown here in the advertisement, it displays the woman becoming “powerless” to the man while the man is seen directly looking at the audience. This shows that the man has “power” over the woman and is illustrating that he has dominance over the woman by looking at the audience as opposed to not looking at the camera like the woman model here. Although the picture does not show the full body of the two models, the audience can depict that they are in a close embrace from the style of the poses they are in. The advertisement gives the message to the audience looking at the picture that in today’s American culture, one must purchase material products of value, such as a “Gucci Guilty” cologne, to gain status and with that status, attract people, in this case, the man in the photo is attracting the woman as she is seen seductively embracing the male model.

American media heavily portrays the man as being over dominate over woman, in this case, the man having the power to attract females by purchasing a famous, wealthy brand cologne from “Gucci” in the advertisement, gives him the power over the woman to attract her because of his material possession. The media here tells the viewer that as long as you hold possession of a highly valued brand, you can get anything you want and shows the status of your wealth. This is the “American Dream” that people are after and working towards when living in the United States. To become wealthy and by achieving that, to get a high paying job.

The media also portrays that the models are both of white ethnicities. In today’s American advertisement industry, majority of the models that are portrayed are white and they are rarely shown in other different ethnicities. This shows the dominance of being of white ethnicity is the ideal beauty and race, that still upholds, in American culture. As stated by Hortense Powdermaker’s article, “Certain articles of faith, constituting a creed of racial relations, are held almost unanimously by the Whites in our community” (Powdermaker 23). What Powdermaker states is that in our society, the white dominance is everywhere in our contemporary medium. As our ideal beauty of the whites grows, so does our perception of how one must look. It is a common ideal for a young woman to be skinny, have long, blonde, luscious hair while the man to be muscular, tall, and have manly features such as containing facial hair as shown in this photo. However, it is uncommon to see other color ethnicities in advertisements such as this. The photo also illustrates the models as non-elderly, they are young, in their prime years as young adults, and this depicts the ideal beauty in our American society, again, as only perceiving that ideal beauty as non-elderly. This culture is further explained through the article of Barbara Myerhoff as she states, “As a society, we are increasingly cut off from the elderly. We do not have them in the midst of our daily lives, and consequently have no regular access to models of successful old age” (Myerhoff 19). Myerhoff states that as we increase in more advertisements of beauty, material products, and highly valued brands, it is uncommon for an elderly model to advertise such products because they are not the ideal beauty that society is looking for. As seen in the advertisement displayed here, both the male and female models are noticeably young as that is what the American society is looking at. The advertisement photo is working on the noticeably fit male model and the attractive female model as they pose seductively towards the camera. Again, the gaze of the male model shows the power of dominance of he has control over the female, that he knows that he is young, strongly built, and that he is the ideal male model that American society is staring at because of his non-elderly features and his depiction of his high status. By purchasing such brand products as the “Gucci Guilty” cologne, the advertisement tells you that you are gradually achieving the American Dream of a high status.

Works Cited

Hortense Powdermaker, After Freedom: A Cultural Study in the Deep South (1939) [excerpts]

Barbara Myerhoff, Number Our Days (1978/1980) [excerpt]

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